Issue 4(56)/2018

doi:10.37190/arc (doi:10.5277/arc)

Download table of contents

Table of contents

Open table of contents

  1. Tomasz Jażdżewski, Aleksander Piwek - Sundials of St Mary’s Church in Gdańsk
  2. Małgorzata Doroz-Turek - The architectural research of the belfry of the church of St James the Apostle in Sandomierz
  3. Małgorzata Milecka - Transformations of gardens at Bernardine monastery in Piotrków Trybunalski
  4. Ewa Święcka - In pursuit of the original – palimpsest in wall painting. Exhibiting exposures
  5. Maria Ludwika Lewicka - The Old Town fortifications in Olsztyn in the concept of old town green belt – between conservation and creation
  6. Piotr Molski - Evaluation of architectural heritage and the workmanship of the architect
  7. Cezary Głuszek - The valuation of the wall-earth fortress facilities – background of the problem
  8. Konrad Szumiński - School of modernism – the problem of evaluating the architecture of Warsaw school buildings during the interwar period on the example of the former Female Vocational School

Articles

Tomasz Jażdżewski, Aleksander Piwek - Sundials of St Mary’s Church in Gdańsk

doi:10.5277/arc180401

The paper presents contemporary research evidence of form, function and history of the sundials of St Mary’s Church in Gdańsk. The discussed sundials are located on the southern wall of the church transept. The sundial, which is believed to be made by Lorenzo Zachau in 1533, is placed on the west side of the western window, at the edge of the wall. The face of this sundial is separated by a horizontal line into two parts. The upper part is painted in stars and sun with metal bar (polos). The painting in the lower part has numbers and divisions denoting hours and half-hours. Researches, which have been conducted in connection to the conservational works allowed identifying irregular relics of plaster on the east side of this sundial and on the left side of the central window as relics of the second sundial. Outline of its face is marked by dents on the bricks. In the upper part a hole was found in which the polos was embedded. This sundial was located under the waterspout. Falling water caused its destruction, abandonment and foundation of the new sundial in a different place (near the edge of the wall). From these facts one can infer about the time of the foundation of this sundial. Probably it was made in the 2nd half of the 15th century as the first sundial in Gdańsk. Value of two sundials of St Mary church in Gdańsk arise from early origins and unique form.

Keywords:
  •     sundial
  •     st-marys-church
  •     gdańsk
  • Download article

    Małgorzata Doroz-Turek - The architectural research of the belfry of the church of St James the Apostle in Sandomierz

    doi:10.5277/arc180402

    The article presents the results of an architectural research carried out in the belfry of the church of St James the Apostle of the Dominican Monastery in Sandomierz. The aim of the research was to show the authentic form of the belfry in the light of the subsequent transformations as well as renovation and conservation works. A short outline of the history of founding the monastery in Sandomierz along with the beginnings of the medieval architecture of the Dominican church were presented. The archival searchquery and the state of research permitted an analysis and interpretation of iconographic sources in the light of historical documents. In view of the above-mentioned research and by virtue of her own architectural study based on a thorough architectural inventory of this part of the church, the author undertook an attempt to determine the phases of the construction of the belfry.

    Keywords:
  •     dominicans
  •     middle-ages
  •     architecture
  •     belfry
  •     church-of-st-james-the-apostle
  •     sandomierz
  • Download article

    Małgorzata Milecka - Transformations of gardens at Bernardine monastery in Piotrków Trybunalski

    doi:10.5277/arc180403

    The article is devoted to the presentation of a relic of the former Bernardine garden in Piotrków Trybunalski. Based on the analyzed source material, the author presented the fate of the garden in the context of the history of the monastery. She showed the contemporary resource of the former Bernardine garden and described the state of preservation of the historical system. This allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of the assumption and draw conclusions about the protection of the garden heritage, and then formulate recommendations for shaping the historical landscape of the center of Piotrków. As a result of the analysis, it was proved that the historical and artistic values of the Piotrków Bernardine complex are large. The history of this complex of greenery, its composition and rank for the contemporary urban layout deserve closer presentation, as was done in the article. The assumption is an interesting example of the evolution of green areas and a testimony of the great influence of religious congregations on shaping the city landscape.

    Keywords:
  •     bernardines
  •     monastery
  •     garden
  •     piotrków-trybunalski
  • Download article

    Ewa Święcka - In pursuit of the original – palimpsest in wall painting. Exhibiting exposures

    doi:10.5277/arc180404

    The article presents problems of revealing of mural paintings which is an integral part of architectural surfaces investigation. The paper also describes different kinds of preparatory layers used in the past as a support for new decorations and general rules of its conservation proceedings.     The stratigraphic layers of mural painting are the following: the wall, plasters and renderings, strata of whitewash and polychromes. In some cases only limited parts of authentic paint are presented without removing of all layers added later on the whole decorated surface. Overpaintings are removed in conservation treatment, that is why the conservator is the one to make the most important decisions. In the past conservators used to reveal the oldest existing paint layer; overlapping layers were simply lost. Today there are many solutions and methods of conservation allowing to preserve and expose paintings created on the same wall in different historical periods. The photographs included in the article illustrate different systems and forms of presentation. It should be stressed that parallel presentation of paintings coming from several periods is mainly an aesthetical problem. One should also remember that painted decoration is not only a work of art but also a document of history of the building.

    Keywords:
  •     wall-painting
  •     conservation
  •     authenticity
  •     stratigraphy
  •     palimpsest
  • Download article

    Maria Ludwika Lewicka - The Old Town fortifications in Olsztyn in the concept of old town green belt – between conservation and creation

    doi:10.5277/arc180405

    The subject of the work is the conservation process of preparing the scientific basis for design solutions for future old town green belt in Olsztyn. The article present the effect of parts of research carried out by the author for 20 years: historical, architectural and archeological and conservation pre-design studies – selected in terms of connection with the implementation of the belt of greenery according to the project selected as a result of a nationwide architectural and urban competition. The historical value of the Old Town defense districts and the idea of the urban green belt were also discussed.     The old town green belt competition was announced by the City Hall in Olsztyn in 2017. The first place awarded for the work will be carried out. Documentations from previous research and conservation studies on the medieval fortifications of the city and the castle were the substantive basis for the winning work. The project selected in the competition is satisfactory in terms of the level of cultural studies and proposed solutions, and taking into account what is the most important in the study and research developed in the past on the order of the conservation services in Olsztyn. In the future old town green belt area, historic buildings will coexist with modern facilities of the Old Town infrastructure and park greenery.

    Keywords:
  •     monuments
  •     military-architecture
  •     olsztyn
  •     old-town-green-belt
  •     conservation
  • Download article

    Piotr Molski - Evaluation of architectural heritage and the workmanship of the architect

    doi:10.5277/arc180406

    Dealing with architectural monuments is closely related to the evolution of civilization and socio-economic determinants exceeding far beyond the criteria of conservation. Transformations of the last half-century requires adjustments in the system of protection of monuments in Poland, taking into account the protection of their cultural values in the process of adaptation to modern usage.     These two goals are difficult to reconcile. This is illustrated for example by architectural concepts – such as the new development of the Citadel of the Modlin Fortress or the Kłodzko Fortress. The basis for the optimization of projects for the development of historical objects and complexes is the method of their evaluation. Such a method allows to differentiate the attributes of value in relation to their material carriers, and as a result, the protection regimes and permissible modernization transformations of objects and their structural elements. The content of the article summarizes the attempts to develop a model for valuing architectural monuments integrated with the design practice.

    Keywords:
  •     heritage
  •     valuation
  •     workmanship
  •     architect
  • Download article

    Cezary Głuszek - The valuation of the wall-earth fortress facilities – background of the problem

    doi:10.5277/arc180407

    There are many examples of the lack of knowledge about the types, functioning and principles of protection of fortification works – resulting in significant conservation errors in their revalorisation: the introduction of contemporary functions and architectural forms. Therefore, the basis for commencing investment works must be the objective valorisation of the existing objects: their authenticity, degree of preservation, etc. This text concerns this issue and signals the directions of conservation and design proceedings. The article was written as a result of original field and bibliographical research on the issue of architectural monuments valuation. The background to the problem of valorization of brick and earth post-fortifications objects has been drawn.     On the basis of research: 1) historical forms of fortifications were identified and the types of building material from which they were made, 2) the remains of earth fortifications were identified as well as their degree and state of preservation, with particular emphasis on Fort Cze (Piłsudski), 3) the potential values of the discussed architectural heritage category were distinguished. At the end, a negative conservator’s example of the adaptation of Fort Cze (Piłsudski), conveying an untrue image of a historical object, was presented.

    Keywords:
  •     fort
  •     terrestrial-fortifications
  •     valuation
  •     realisations
  •     errors
  • Download article

    Konrad Szumiński - School of modernism – the problem of evaluating the architecture of Warsaw school buildings during the interwar period on the example of the former Female Vocational School

    doi:10.5277/arc180408

    The aim of the article is to present a procedure model in the field of recognition and assessment of cultural values of modernist school buildings from the interwar period. The main part of the work is a case study of an exemplary school from this period, whose architecture has been evaluated. This allowed us to determine how the defined cultural values and their carriers appearing in the monument translate into conclusions for the development of permissible transformations in a selected complex of buildings. The article is an attempt to answer the question how the analysis evaluating a monument influences the final presentation of the identified values in contemporary forms of architecture in a historical context. The presented research process should be a standard of conduct with similar examples of architecture of modernism.

    Keywords:
  •     modernism
  •     interwar-period
  •     heritage-evaluating
  •     school
  •     warsaw
  • Download article