Issue 4(72)/2022

doi:10.37190/arc (doi:10.5277/arc)

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  1. Ulrich Schaaf, Maciej Prarat, Tomasz Ważny - The mediaeval roof structure over the nave of the cathedral in Kamień Pomorski in the light of architectural and dendrochronological research
  2. Edwin Orsel - Constructive development of the Leiden house in the 13th and 14th centuries
  3. Anna Bojęś-Białasik, Agnieszka Luboń-Radwańska - Research and conservation of the so-called Studentate at the Dominican Priory in Cracow
  4. Czesław Lasota, Andrzej Legendziewicz - Medieval architecture of the Dominican church in Opole (the so-called “na Górce”) and its transformations from the end of the 13th century to the beginning of the 18th century
  5. Beata Piaskowska, Maciej Prarat, Artur Różański, Tomasz Olszacki, Ulrich Schaaf - The ruins of the castle in Koło in the light of the latest architectural and archaeological research, and their conservation issues
  6. Piotr Niemcewicz, Katarzyna Polak, Aleksandra Gralińska-Grubecka,Karolina Witkowska, Wojciech Bartz, Marta Chylińska, Andrzej Podgórski - Conservation studies of the ruins of the Gothic Kazimierz castle (2nd half of the 14th century) in Koło (Gozdów)
  7. Sandro Parrinello, Francesca Picchio, Silvia La Placa - From Model to Model. The narrative between drawing and digital reproduction of Donatello’s Pulpit
  8. Dominika Kuśnierz-Krupa, Kazimierz Kuśnierz, Małgorzata Hryniewicz, Julia Ivashko, Dorota Bober - Conservation of the Renaissance towns of Southern Poland based on selected examples: an introduction to research
  9. Joanna Kucharzewska - Buildings at 14 Franciszkańska Street and 24 Fosa Staromiejska Street in Toruń in the light of architectural research and source queries
  10. Anna Orchowska-Smolińska, Anna Kriegseisen, Jakub Szczepański - Interdisciplinary research as a form of monument protection and preparation for the investment process on the example of the former Gdańsk Shipyard complex
  11. Anna Orchowska-Smolińska, Anna Kriegseisen - The role and scope of architectural and conservation research procedures in the process of restoring the splendour of an architectural monument created after 1945 on the example of the Suburban Railway Station in Gdynia

Articles

Ulrich Schaaf, Maciej Prarat, Tomasz Ważny - The mediaeval roof structure over the nave of the cathedral in Kamień Pomorski in the light of architectural and dendrochronological research

doi:10.37190/arc220401

The subject of the article is the roof structure over the central nave of the cathedral in Kamień Pomorski. Although there are numerous studies relating to the history of the construction of this cathedral or to the development of historic roof structures in general, none of them has yet included the roof structures discussed in this work. This situation and the need to repair the construction have justified the carrying out of the architectural research to learn its construction history and carpentry technique.     The research on the existing material substance in the eastern trusses, taking into account the following aspects: load-bearing structure, sides of timber framing, carpentry joints, a system of carpentry assembly marks, building material, and its processing. The results of these analyses were supplemented and compared with the results of dendrochronological research and that presented in the literature on the subject.     As a result of this research, it has been possible to establish that the chancel of the Kamień Pomorski cathedral is crowned with a cross-braced collar beam roof structure, which dates back to the early 1360s. It was strengthened in the late 1860s by additional entablature above the vault rise, and an inclined queen post structure and a king post structure. The next strengthening took place fragmentarily as part of the repair that has been underway since the end of the late 2010s. Despite its age and repairs, the original structure has survived to a great extent.     The type of the roof structure used above the nave in Kamień Pomorski – a cross-braced collar beam roof structure – served a specific construction function in the Middle Ages – the construction of a roof over a vault within the boundaries of the roof. A preliminary literature review has shown that examples of such solutions have survived in various parts of Europe to the present day, but only in a small number. In the territory of Poland, so far it is the only known example of this kind from the 14th century.     Currently, the remaining cross-braced collar beam roof structures over both arms of the transept and chancel of the cathedral in Kamień Pomorski are included in the architectural research. A wider study on this type of mediaeval roof structures, and attempts to compare the roof structures of the Kamień Pomorski cathedral against a broader background are desirable in the future.

Keywords:
  •     kamień-pomorski
  •     cathedral
  •     roof-structure
  •     middle-ages
  •     architectural-research
  •     dendrochronological-research
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    Edwin Orsel - Constructive development of the Leiden house in the 13th and 14th centuries

    doi:10.37190/arc220402

    Leiden is one of the largest medieval cities in the Netherlands. Because the city has never suffered major devastation, for example caused by city fires or wars, there is a rich layered historic city centre. This article discusses the constructive development of Leiden houses in the 13th and 14th centuries and its influences.         In recent years, building archaeological research has uncovered the remains of approximately 150 buildings from before or about 1400. Based on this, and in combination with archaeological data, the constructive development of the Leiden house in the 13th and 14th centuries can be outlined. Based on dendrochronologically dated examples, the origin of a typical timber-frame house with brick façades can be established, a confluence of older timber- and stone-building traditions. It is a building type that remains the popular building type in Leiden and far beyond until about 1600. This development is related to the urbanization of Leiden in the 13th century with urban densification, population growth and the emergence of guilds. The issuing of fire prevention measures by the city council and the payment of subsidies also play an important role. The development is also determined by the availability of building materials. According to dendrochronological data, construction timber has to be imported from afar, from Westphalia or Emsland (Germany). Natural stone was not available locally and had to be supplied from far away regions in Germany or Belgium, until a flourishing brick industry developed along the Rhine in the 13th century, immediately outside the city gates of Leiden. By inventively combining brick walls and a wooden supporting structure by specialized carpenters, high-quality and fire-safe houses were created, responding to the demands of the growing citizenry and the city authorities in a nascent city.

    Keywords:
  •     leiden
  •     building-archaeology
  •     construction-history
  •     medieval-houses
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    Anna Bojęś-Białasik, Agnieszka Luboń-Radwańska - Research and conservation of the so-called Studentate at the Dominican Priory in Cracow

    doi:10.37190/arc220403

    The topic of the article is architectural and conservation research in one of the rooms of the so-called studentate in the Dominican priory in Krakow, which brought very interesting and unexpected results. In a small room that served as a kitchen, elements of late-Gothic decoration were discovered, e.g. beamed ceiling, portal and large fragments of polychrome. The article describes the course of research and subsequent discoveries, each of which required individual decisions regarding the method of conservation and exposition. An important issue was the interpretation of the iconographic program of the polychrome and the analysis of the entire decoration in the context of architectural transformations and the supposed historical function of the room. Reference was also made to conservation and technical procedures related to, among others, the need to introduce a new load-bearing ceiling above the room.

    Keywords:
  •     dominican-priory
  •     krakow
  •     research
  •     conservation
  •     wooden-beam-ceiling
  •     polychromy
  •     portal
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    Czesław Lasota, Andrzej Legendziewicz - Medieval architecture of the Dominican church in Opole (the so-called “na Górce”) and its transformations from the end of the 13th century to the beginning of the 18th century

    doi:10.37190/arc220404

    The article concerns the transformations of the architecture of the Dominican church of Our Lady of Sorrows and St. Wojciech (the so-called “na Górce”) in Opole. The paper presents the results of original architectural research conducted from 2008 to 2017. Previous analyses regarding the construction and transformation of the church “na Górce” are based on the findings of pre-war researchers, which relied on a general inspection of the plastered building. The discussed architectural research enabled the scope of the original monastic church, and its expansion from around 1361, to be distinguished. This also applies to the enlargement of the chancel and its adaptation, as well as to the construction of a two-nave, four-bay nave. The chancel of this church was enlarged in around 1399 by adding a polygonal eastern closure, and the church itself was probably renovated and enlarged in around 1430 by the construction of an outbuilding adjacent to the nave. The presented research results significantly change the previously published description concerning the construction and transformation of the architecture of the Dominican church in Opole.

    Keywords:
  •     silesia
  •     architecture
  •     middle-ages
  •     church
  •     dominicans
  •     opole
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    Beata Piaskowska, Maciej Prarat, Artur Różański, Tomasz Olszacki, Ulrich Schaaf - The ruins of the castle in Koło in the light of the latest architectural and archaeological research, and their conservation issues

    doi:10.37190/arc220405

    The ruins of the castle in Koło are one of the better-preserved examples of a stronghold from the times of Kazimierz Wielki in the lowlands. The building has been in a state of ruin since the 17th century. A prominent corner tower with a fragment of three curtains has survived to this day. The purpose of this text is to discuss the results of architectural and archaeological research carried out in the years 2019–2020 and the project of the castle’s partial protection.      The analysis of the aforementioned research made it possible to state that the construction of the stronghold began with the residential tower in the northern part. Subsequently, a tower was built in the south-west corner. In the next few stages, curtain walls were erected, closing the courtyard. In the southern part there was a gatehouse. A different construction technique enables us to conclude that there were several workshops working on it, which used single-rack and overhang scaffolding. The condition of the ruins was so bad that it was necessary to arrange a project to protect parts of one of the walls, which was completed in 2020.

    Keywords:
  •     middle-ages
  •     castle
  •     architectural-research
  •     archeological-research
  •     koło
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    Piotr Niemcewicz, Katarzyna Polak, Aleksandra Gralińska-Grubecka,Karolina Witkowska, Wojciech Bartz, Marta Chylińska, Andrzej Podgórski - Conservation studies of the ruins of the Gothic Kazimierz castle (2nd half of the 14th century) in Koło (Gozdów)

    doi:10.37190/arc220406

    The purpose of this article is to present the conservation research carried out as part of the revitalization project of the ruins of the castle in Koło. Basis of the recognition of the monument’s construction technique, identification and determination of the properties of historical and contemporary materials, assessment of the state of preservation and analysis of destructive factors developed a program of conservation works. Research was carried out considering the findings of architectural research. Laboratory tests of the collected material were carried out by a wide team of employees using specialized research techniques. Their results are presented in this article and include petrographic, chemical and thermogravimetric analyses of mortars, rocks and bricks, their capillary and mechanical properties, salinity analysis and microbiological analyses of materials. The undeniable value of the conducted research is a detailed diagnosis of historical building materials, which is a significant contribution to the knowledge of old construction techniques.

    Keywords:
  •     medieval-architecture
  •     building-materials
  •     material-testing
  •     architectural-conservation
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    Sandro Parrinello, Francesca Picchio, Silvia La Placa - From Model to Model. The narrative between drawing and digital reproduction of Donatello’s Pulpit

    doi:10.37190/arc220407

    The paper aims to consider the narrative and interpretative contribution that digital models can make to heritage archiving date and enhancement, through an investigation conducted on Donatello’s Pulpit in Prato. The pulpit is an architectural work of sophisticated decoration and constitutes a stage in the Ostension of the Sacra Cintola ceremony. The relic of the belt that encircled the clothes of the Virgin is preserved in the Cathedral of Santo Stefano. On the main façade of the church a copy of Donatello’s work is placed. The original opera is kept in the Museum of the same Cathedral.     Today, the modalities of communication and transmission of cultural heritage acquire new features with the use and implemention of digital technology. Reality-based 3D models become increasingly accurate digital copies that duplicate the space and character of architectural works, constituting not only copies but serving as critical reinterpretations that express a formal synthesis of object complexity.     The documentation activities carried out have made it possible to generate three-dimensional databases of the two pulpits, the original one and the copy. From digital databases 3D models and printed models have been developed to dialogue in the museum exhibition with the Renaissance opera and its history.

    Keywords:
  •     3d-survey
  •     digital-twin
  •     3d-printing
  •     donatellos-pulpit
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    Dominika Kuśnierz-Krupa, Kazimierz Kuśnierz, Małgorzata Hryniewicz, Julia Ivashko, Dorota Bober - Conservation of the Renaissance towns of Southern Poland based on selected examples: an introduction to research

    doi:10.37190/arc220408

    This paper discusses the conservation of selected historical Renaissance urban layouts located in the Lesser Poland, Subcarpathian and Holy Cross voivodeships. The objective of the study was to analyze previous research on the theory of Renaissance urban design theory in Poland, with a particular emphasis on the areas in question, as well as the typology of the urban layouts founded during this period.      An analysis of urban layouts of selected small towns was performed, which also covered their current forms of statutory conservation. The degree of preservation of the layouts’ historical structure was determined, and a proposal of general guidelines for their conservation was formulated.

    Keywords:
  •     renaissance-period-urban-design
  •     zakliczyn
  •     cieszanów
  •     raków
  •     conservation
  •     revalorization
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    Joanna Kucharzewska - Buildings at 14 Franciszkańska Street and 24 Fosa Staromiejska Street in Toruń in the light of architectural research and source queries

    doi:10.37190/arc220409

    The article presents the results of architectural research carried out at the basement level at 14 Franciszkańska and 24 Fosa Staromiejska Streets in Toruń. The aforementioned research was supplemented with source studies concerning both cellars and above-ground parts.      The aim of the architectural research was to determine stages of construction on the plots in question from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. An important issue was to identify the content of the oldest historic substance from the medieval period and the moment of functional and spatial integration of the opposite plots.      The plot is located in the northern part of the Old Town of Toruń, within a triangular block of buildings, the outline of which was determined by the course of the north-eastern section of the city walls. Currently, on two opposite plots there is a tenement house, which received its final shape in the early 20th century.         During the research, it was found that the oldest, Gothic fragments are present in the southern part (on the side of Franciszkańska Street). In the second Gothic stage, the northern part (from the side of Fosa Staromiejska Street) was given a basement and the stone foundations of the earlier building were used to create it. In the modern period, the two parts, which had been two independent units until then, were connected by a side outbuilding. In the 18th century, on the plot facing Franciszkańska Street, there was a two-story, brick granary. From the side of Fosa Staromiejska Street, there was a timber frame coach house. Both buildings burnt down at the beginning of the 19th century. In the mid-19th century, a large, fivestorey granary covering both plots was erected. The granary was founded on medieval and modern cellars. The ultimate change of buildings took place in 1906, when, after the demolition of the granary, two tenement houses were built with a common central route containing a staircase and an inner courtyard.      Architectural research together with the source material was an effective tool for reconstructing individual stages of construction and expanding our knowledge about the forms of development of the walled part of the Old Town in Toruń.

    Keywords:
  •     architectural-research
  •     toruń
  •     14-franciszkańska-street
  •     24-fosa-staromiejska-street
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    Anna Orchowska-Smolińska, Anna Kriegseisen, Jakub Szczepański - Interdisciplinary research as a form of monument protection and preparation for the investment process on the example of the former Gdańsk Shipyard complex

    doi:10.37190/arc220410

    The multi-layered heritage of many industrial plants operating until the end of the 20th century creates a particular challenge for conservators, designers and investors. In the process of protecting its values, displaying qualities and managing the property, it is necessary to recognize a wider transformation of technology of the entire plant and the individual functions of its buildings, as well as the context of intangible heritage. An example of this type of complex historical building is the former Gdańsk Shipyard. The subject of the article is an interdisciplinary study of the shipyard complex, during which a research method based on several scales of analysis (in relation to the city, the complex and the facility) was developed. It was based on an in-depth recognition of the shipyard’s operation in the 1970s and 1980s, which, due to workers’ strikes in the plant and the establishment of NSZZ “Solidarność”, had a special impact on constitutionalizing its property status to outstanding values. The authors set themselves the goal of presenting the results of a detailed study of the cultural resources of the shipyard, which included specialists from the shipbuilding industry historically associated with this particular industrial plant. As a result, multi-faceted conservation guidelines were created to set the framework for the protection of the shipyard’s cultural resources, conduct conservation and investment works on its premises (material and color template). The summary shows the possibilities of using the presented model of research activities in connection with design activities using the example of an industrial facility prepared for the investment process (former Main Warehouse, the so-called U-Boat Hall).

    Keywords:
  •     architectural-and-conservation-documentation
  •     conservation-guidelines
  •     colour-pattern
  •     adaptation-of-post-industrial-monuments
  •     gdańsk-shipyard
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    Anna Orchowska-Smolińska, Anna Kriegseisen - The role and scope of architectural and conservation research procedures in the process of restoring the splendour of an architectural monument created after 1945 on the example of the Suburban Railway Station in Gdynia

    doi:10.37190/arc220411

    Modern Movement buildings, despite their relatively recent construction, are sometimes affected by radical transformations of layout and form. The railway stations being one of the most important public buildings in the city are a special group of them. Due to long-term and intensive use they may bear the signs of exploitation of parts of its substance and have secondary transformations disharmony with the building. The subject of the article are architectural and conservation studies of the Suburban Railway Station in Gdynia, built in the mid-1950s. The authors of the article set themselves the goal of presenting the research procedures developed for it in the years 2016–2022, which are an introduction to revaluation process. The research methods used during the field work made it possible to identify the originally used techniques of execution and finishing methods and to determine the procedures for their reconstruction using conservation methods. The results of the conducted research became the basis for determining the scope of conservation protection of the station building, as well as the possibility of interfering with its partly “functionless” substance through adaptation and modernization activities.

    Keywords:
  •     architectural-and-conservation-documentation
  •     program-of-conservation-and-restoration-works
  •     architecture-after-1945
  •     revalorization
  •     gdynia-suburban-railway-station
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