Issue 3(75)/2023

doi:10.37190/arc (doi:10.5277/arc)

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  1. Janusz Maciej Nowiński - Late Romanesque baptismal font from St. Nicholas Church in Grudziądz – import from Gotland
  2. Szymon Bakalarczyk - Transformations of the form and façade of the Lehndorff palace in Sztynort Duży in the light of architectural research
  3. Barbara Widera - Tradition and innovation of Albert Einstein’s villa in Caputh
  4. Iwona Krawiec - Analysis of spatial transformations and development of the main streets of the historic Nowa Praga district in Warsaw
  5. Anna Górka - The role of isolated farmsteads in the open landscape protection on the example of Kashubia
  6. Paweł Mierosławski - The practice of adapting a post-industrial facility into a museum of technology
  7. Dominika Kinga Długosz - Oświęcim ring road development as UNESCO world cultural heritage site buffer zone protection case study
  8. Agata Woźniczka - The impact of policy initiatives on the design of public spaces on the example of the New European Bauhaus
  9. Ekrem Bahadır Çalışkan - Briefing with artificial intelligence for requirement elicitation: Three cases with ChatGPT for exploration of possibilities
  10. Wojciech Januszewski - An outline of the geometric proportion systems in architecture

Articles

Janusz Maciej Nowiński - Late Romanesque baptismal font from St. Nicholas Church in Grudziądz – import from Gotland

doi:10.37190/arc230301

The article discusses the study of the baptismal font located next to the presbytery of Saint Nicholas parish church in Grudziądz. The aim of the research conducted in 2023 was to verify current views on its centuries-old history. Our study presents the history of the object, its artistic provenance, iconography and ideological content. Based on the research, it was found that the late Romanesque baptismal bowl is an original work of Gotland provenance, dating back to the 2nd half of the 14th century. Its Gotland origin is evidenced by formal, compositional and iconographic analogies connecting its creator with the style of Gotland workshops known as the so-called Fröjel Group that was active in Gotland and southern Scandinavia around the mid-14th century. The decisive argument for the origin of the baptismal font from Gotland was the petrographic examination of its stone carried out in July 2023, which showed that it was made of Gotland limestone found in the Hoburgen deposits. This work should therefore be treated as an import from Gotland. The article also emphasizes that in order to illustrate the theological message, the creator of the baptismal font – in accordance with the tradition present in his artistic environment – used symbolic representations of animals, the iconography of which and the dramaturgy of actions involving them were taken from the medieval bestiary – Physiologus. The beasts shown on the baptismal font, exorcised by baptism, walk in a row towards Christ symbolized by a lion.

Keywords:
  •     gotland
  •     grudziądz
  •     st-nicholas-church
  •     baptismal-font
  •     fröjel-group
  •     physiologus
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    Szymon Bakalarczyk - Transformations of the form and façade of the Lehndorff palace in Sztynort Duży in the light of architectural research

    doi:10.37190/arc230202

    Rural residential architecture of former East Prussia is a poorly recognized resource, and therefore often marginalized, or superficially assessed on the basis of contemporary visible stylistic features and assumptions related to the chronology of their transformations. This problem also applies to the baroque Lehndorff palace in Sztynort Duży, which is the second largest, preserved to this day modern family residence in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article attempts to recognize the transformations of the form and façade of this building in the light of architectural research. It presents the current state of knowledge and questions raised by the previous authors. Then it discusses the new findings made during the architectural research of the wall structures of the palace façade, taking into account the secondarily obscured perimeter walls. As a result of the observation of changes in the bond, brick material, mortars, plasters and architectural details, juxtaposed with the analysis of published sources, bibliography and some extensive archival materials, eight main construction phases were distinguished. Research resulted in significant changes in the chronology and verification of hypotheses related to undated iconographic sources. It confirmed former hypothesis, that the baroque palace from 1689–1695 had no corner or side avant-corps until the neoclassical expansion. The original composition and color scheme of the façade from that period were determined, as well as new casesuras of both later extensions of the building. The classicist wings were built in the years 1780–1785, and raised in the beginning of 19th century. The neo-Gothic expansion, including raising them again and adding three annexes, was carried out in three stages between 1858–1862. Since then, façades have undergone only minor changes in the area of window openings, mainly in the 1st half of the 20th century, the 1980s, and between 2010 and 2015.

    Keywords:
  •     palace
  •     baroque
  •     architectural-research
  •     lehndorf
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    Barbara Widera - Tradition and innovation of Albert Einstein’s villa in Caputh

    doi:10.37190/arc230303

    The aim of the article is to analyse Albert Einstein’s villa in Caputh (1929) designed by Konrad Wachsmann in the context of the theory and history of contemporary architecture, including aspects of tradition and modernity in the adopted aesthetic, functional and spatial solutions. The research was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, based on a literature review and in situ analyses, the main features of the building were determined against the background of the functional and aesthetic tendencies prevailing during the period of the building’s construction. This allowed us to determine to what extent the design of Einstein’s villa referred to the building traditions of the region and which features reflected an innovative way of thinking, anticipating modernism in architecture. In the second part of the research, the building was characterized in the light of the latest trends in the theory and history of contemporary architecture, taking into account the principles of sustainable development, resilience of the built environment to climate change, circularity, bioclimatic design and the New European Bauhaus. The main conclusions from the conducted research concern the compromise and balance between the aspects of tradition and modernity in the Einstein’s villa, manifested in the choice of the location and adopted functional and structural solutions. The applied connection system enabling quick assembly of the building represents a very early example of prefabrication. Important innovative features include: the way of shaping the space, the use of wood as the main building material, the creation of viewing axes and the use of daylight to modulate the interiors’ ambience.

    Keywords:
  •     modern-architecture
  •     prefabrication
  •     circular-economy
  •     bioclimatic-architecture
  •     sustainable-architecture
  •     new-european-bauhaus
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    Iwona Krawiec - Analysis of spatial transformations and development of the main streets of the historic Nowa Praga district in Warsaw

    doi:10.37190/arc230304

    The subject of the article is the spatial and architectural development of Nowa Praga [New Praga], located in the Praga-Północ [Praga-North] district of Warsaw, which dates back to the 1st half of the 19th century. On the then undeveloped land, a network of streets was laid out, among which the main ones were Środkowa Street and then Nowopragska (now Stalowa Street). The aim of the research presented in the article was to trace the transformations that took place in the urban planning and architecture of Nowa Praga during the nearly 200 years of its existence, as well as to analyse the current state of development and urban layout and draw conclusions for the future. For the purposes of the research, extensive cartographic and iconographic material was collected and analysed, which served as the basis for developing subsequent phases of the development of the studied area. The result of the work are reconstruction drawings presenting subsequent stages of the spatial development of the studied area, as well as chronological stratification of the existing buildings, an analysis of their technical condition and a definition of the main problems affecting the studied spatial development. Based on the analyses carried out, it should be stated that in just 100 years, the architectural character of the district has changed drastically, but despite numerous modifications, the historical division of land and ownership from subsequent stages of the district’s development is still clearly visible.

    Keywords:
  •     19th-and-20th-centuries
  •     nowa-praga
  •     urban-and-architectural-transformations
  •     stalowa-street
  •     środkowa-street
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    Anna Górka - The role of isolated farmsteads in the open landscape protection on the example of Kashubia

    doi:10.37190/arc230305

    As a result of the social and economic transformation of rural areas, open landscapes are disappearing. Former farmsteads are being devastated or beginning to lose their landscape context due to the spread of residential building development. At the same time, in many places, the farmstead form is clearly legible and remains an element with which the view is structured and enriched. The article was aimed at drawing attention to the multidimensional importance of isolated farmsteads and the need to recognise their surviving resources. Being distinguishing features with which the attractiveness of an open landscape can be determined, they inspire the development of a multifunctional rural economy led by the local community. Isolated farmsteads can respond to the city’s problems and function in many non-agricultural areas, including education, tourism and recreation, nature protection and health protection. Protection of the building development of former farmsteads may provide a tool to effectively support the shaping of spatial order in large areas. The article presents a method for describing the preservation condition of single-manor buildings developed at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It is proposed that the study analyses the architectural features of farmsteads that play an important part in the recognition of such building development in the open landscape. Observation areas were selected based on the results of remote identification of the location of historic farmsteads and buildings. The field study was conducted in the central part of Kashubia, along selected scenic routes. These routes comprised 26 solitary homesteads. In half of the cases studied, the exposure of the farmstead buildings deteriorated due to the proximity of modern residential building development. The spatial layout of the majority of farmsteads has changed, which most commonly resulted from expansion beyond the former outline of the farmyard. Numerous historic buildings have been rebuilt. Despite the above-mentioned modifications, in the study area, the farmstead has remained a distinctive feature of the landscape and retained the potential for transformation to be used in the sustainable development economy. The results encourage the study to be continued. The identified resources and architectural values of the traditional farmstead could support the management and protection of the heritage of agricultural landscapes.

    Keywords:
  •     farmsteads
  •     open-landscape
  •     heritage-protection
  •     sustainable-rural-development
  •     kashubia
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    Paweł Mierosławski - The practice of adapting a post-industrial facility into a museum of technology

    doi:10.37190/arc230306

    The subject of the article is the adaptation of the historic Steam Locomotive Works in Skierniewice for the purposes of a “living” technical museum. The author, using his own thirty years of experience, presented the problem of reconciling the possibility of showing the old technologies of railroad work with the introduction of new functions to historic buildings. The article describes reaching a compromise between the need to preserve historic equipment and infrastructure, as well as the visual qualities of individual objects, with the requirements of current regulations and the desire to show the gathered collection in a way that is interesting and safe for visitors. The example presented in the paper concerns the territorially and cubically largest complex of historic railroad buildings in Poland, where the scale of adaptation works is the largest. The complex is also the oldest surviving relic of the technical facilities of the first Polish railroad line – the Warsaw–Vienna Iron Road. It was built in 1845 and went through several phases of expansion. At present, it preserves buildings from 1859–1943 and technical structures related to the operation of steam locomotives. In 1992, with the end of operation by the railway, the complex was loaned, and in 2002 it was transferred to a non-governmental organization for museum purposes. It is listed in the register of historical monuments under No. 964A. The Skierniewice Locomotive Deport is an example of the success of many years of renovation and adaptation work conducted by an investor that is a non-governmental organization with a modest budget and bases its activities solely on the unpaid work of volunteers.

    Keywords:
  •     historic-preservation
  •     railroad-monuments
  •     living-museum
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    Dominika Kinga Długosz - Oświęcim ring road development as UNESCO world cultural heritage site buffer zone protection case study

    doi:10.37190/arc230307

    Studying the case of the construction of the ring road of Oświęcim in the vicinity of the former German Nazi concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau (1940–1945), being a UNESCO World Heritage site, the article indicates the need for effective legal protection of an area known as its buffer zone. As current Polish regulations do not provide for such legal protection beyond ad hoc solutions (e.g., provisions included in local zoning plans), the article discusses legal solutions existing in Polish legislation and recommends new ones that can be helpful in ensuring effective protection of designated buffer zones. Listing a site as World Heritage sparks recognition yet entails numerous responsibilities. Since the list includes cultural and natural heritage sites of “outstanding value” to humanity, the prerequisite to preserve their authenticity and integrity is of utmost importance. This also applies to their surroundings. In many cases, the intrusion of such major engineering structures as bridges and highways constructed in the vicinity of a World Heritage site ruins the view and has a negative impact on the cultural landscape developed throughout history. To avoid such cases, in recent years, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has taken action to promote the mandatory designation of an additional protective, or buffer, zone around the sites to be listed. At the same time, establishing legal protection of such zones in Polish law would make it possible to supervise and control investment activities in such zones

    Keywords:
  •     unesco
  •     memorial-and-museum-auschwitz-birkenau
  •     buffer-zone
  •     ring-road
  •     oświęcim
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    Agata Woźniczka - The impact of policy initiatives on the design of public spaces on the example of the New European Bauhaus

    doi:10.37190/arc230308

    The program of contemporary public spaces continues to add new functions. As is the awareness of using the design of common spaces to speculate on property values, the use of architecture and public spaces of the second decade of the 21st century as political paraphernalia – used by both civic initiatives and official administrative bodies – is also growing in popularity. The author’s goal in this paper was to examine the impact of political initiatives on public spaces, and because of the timeliness and multifaceted ambitions of the New European Bauhaus (NEB), it was this initiative that was chosen for analysis. The paper describes the implementation potential of the NEB Compass, a tool that the New European Bauhaus initiative is currently proposing as a concrete aid to realizing abstract ambitions. During the research , an extensive literature study of the subject was carried out, which provided an overview of official EU documents describing the New European Bauhaus initiative and the principles of the NEB Compass. The “research by design” method was then used to transform the Compass from an evaluation system into an instrument for formulating design guidelines. The studied multimodal interchanges of the city of Warsaw and the guidelines for their revitalization, formulated through the NEB Compass, showed that an audit tool can be transformed into a design instrument. Testing the resulting evaluation sheet in a project on transforming Warsaw’s interchanges into sustainable and inclusive public spaces made it possible to define effective ways of transforming urban infrastructure into public space, and to diagnose the potential impact of the chosen policy initiative on shaping contemporary public spaces.

    Keywords:
  •     sustainability
  •     new-european-bauhaus
  •     public-space
  •     multifaceted-design
  •     design-tools
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    Ekrem Bahadır Çalışkan - Briefing with artificial intelligence for requirement elicitation: Three cases with ChatGPT for exploration of possibilities

    doi:10.37190/arc230309

    Architectural program is important knowledge of space requirements affecting the design besides context, concept, and intentions. The requirement knowledge is elicited and validated between project stakeholders during the pre-design and design process. The complexity of defining requirements and the difficulty capturing knowledge from project parties vary. Briefing is a vital process to capture, refine, create, and manage space requirements from end-users. Lacks of communication, the inclusion of user clients, and clarity of objectives are critical for eliciting requirements. The AI tools offer many possibilities to diverse areas, and several studies have been conducted recently. The research seeks the usage of AI to capture the building requirement by putting it in the position of the end-user. For this purpose, ChatGPT was used, a language model capable of generating texts and predicting and creating knowledge. The study’s objective is to explore AI’s limits and capabilities for the briefing process to initiate the requirement elicitation. Within the semi-structured interview process, the briefing session was executed for three cases by putting the AI in the end user position. The results are promising in the requirement elicitation of pre-project stages considering the clarity of the architectural program, integrity in context, and usage of time. The argued contribution of AI in architectural projects requires further research; however, the study underlines the possible usage of AI for defining the requirements of the spaces. The avenues of further research may include validating captured knowledge processes needed, examining the AI for different building typologies and project stakeholders, and seeking the bias, ethical concerns, and combinations of humans and AI for various tasks.

    Keywords:
  •     artificial-intelligence
  •     briefing
  •     requirement-capturing
  •     chatgpt
  •     end-user
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    Wojciech Januszewski - An outline of the geometric proportion systems in architecture

    doi:10.37190/arc230310

    Proportional systems are arithmetic or geometric methods of organizing architectural form that determine the mutual proportional relationships of the parts and the whole of an architectural work. The theory of these systems, developed over the centuries, constitutes an essential component of architectural theory, deserving of rediscovery and reinterpretation in our era. The purpose of this study is to present a synthetic overview of the issues related to geometric proportional systems in architecture. The article adopts an interdisciplinary approach, integrating the history and theory of architecture with elements of practical geometry. The research method encompasses a literature analysis and an examination of selected geometric methods applied to specific design problems. The article offers an original perspective on geometric proportional systems, interpreting them as a coherent theory based on interconnected elements, such as similarity of figures, regulating lines, regular shapes, and dynamic symmetry. The study portrays proportional systems as a set of flexible design methods rooted in elementary geometric principles, empowering architects to better control the visual relationships of their designed objects of architecture. Simultaneously, the application of such methods necessitates their harmonious integration with other factors in the design process and subjecting them to critical aesthetic evaluation.

    Keywords:
  •     architecture
  •     geometry
  •     proportion-systems
  •     regulating-lines
  •     dynamic-symmetry
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