Issue 3(43)/2015

doi:10.37190/arc (doi:10.5277/arc)

Download table of contents

Table of contents

Open table of contents

  1. Rafał Czerner - The monumentality retrieved, in other words the anastylosis of the pillar funerary monuments of Marina El-Alamein
  2. Ernest Niemczyk - The colossal statue of Bes from Amathus in Cyprus. Genesis, function, reconstruction
  3. Mariusz Caban - Capitals of pilasters from the Hathor shrine in the temple Djeser-akhet of Tuthmosis III at Deir el-Bahari
  4. Małgorzata Chorowska, Teresa Dziedzic, Maciej Krzywka - Three Rich Stalls discovered in Wrocław
  5. Mateusz Michalski - Architecture of Judaism on the examples of synagogues in the 17th- and the 18th-centuries in Poland
  6. Aleksandra Brzozowska - An archaeological park as an element of urban space exemplified by the Nea Paphos Archaeological Park in Cyprus
  7. Marta Rusnak - Transformation of religious buildings into museums in Poland. History and scale of the phenomenon
  8. Ewa Łukaszewicz-Jędrzejewska - “Butterfly effect”
  9. Barbara Misztal - The assessment of usability of various types of wood in construction

Articles

Rafał Czerner - The monumentality retrieved, in other words the anastylosis of the pillar funerary monuments of Marina El-Alamein

doi:10.5277/arc150301

The pillar tombs, dated back from 2nd century BC to 1st century, are the most characteristic monuments of the city from the Hellenistic Roman period excavated on the site of modern Marina El-Alamein in Egypt. Despite relatively small sizes, they achieved exceptionally strong expression thanks to the particular architectural concept. It is based on presentation of a complete architectural order in the form of a single pillar or column. Its analogues are rare. Forms of the tombs decoration are Hellenistic; they are of Alexandrian origin and should be associated to the initial period of the development of the ancient city. Their particular simplification and geometric stylization enhance the architectural expression. Among few discovered in the years 1987–1994 by the Polish Archaeological Mission of the University of Warsaw and unearthed as completely collapsed, five have been reconstructed by the anastylosis by successive Polish-Egyptian conservation missions. Thanks to their monumentality they are considered today to be the main monuments of the archaeological site. The article presents the history of the discovery of monuments, the idea of their architectural form, and attempts to find its origin. Questions of anastylosis of the monuments were discussed.

Keywords:
  •     egypt
  •     marina-el-alamein
  •     hellenistic-architecture
  •     pillar-tombs
  •     monumentality
  • Download article

    Ernest Niemczyk - The colossal statue of Bes from Amathus in Cyprus. Genesis, function, reconstruction

    doi:10.5277/arc150302

    The figure of the Egyptian deity Bes, full of joy, vigor, and combativeness driving off evil and providing erotic energy, protecting pregnant women,  childbirth, and children enjoyed a well-deserved popularity in the Antiquity both in Egypt and in the whole area of the Roman ecumene. The uniqueness of this sculpture from the coastal city of Amathus in Cyprus regards not only its colossal dimensions (4.2 m tall). Most probably the sculpture depicting Bes taming a lion representing evil was placed in a niche by a fountain pool. The water flowing from the lion’s mouth made the sculpture look alive. This sculpture is probably the only known example of use in the official ancient art of such a unique canon of sculpture of the Dark Continent – Africa – especially on such a colossal scale.     The results of the attempts at establishing the time when the sculpture was made greatly differ. They range over almost 700 years, from cir. 470 BC to cir. 200 CE. Trying not to resolve that dispute, assuming the “older” chronology, the attention was focused on the analysis of form and functionof that unique work, emphasizing the proportions and their relation to the then applicable canons of statuary sculpture. The conclusions were visualized in the reconstruction of the whole composition where Bes was the main element.

    Keywords:
  •     antiquity
  •     empire-period
  •     cyprus
  •     fountain
  •     egyptian-deity
  • Download article

    Mariusz Caban - Capitals of pilasters from the Hathor shrine in the temple Djeser-akhet of Tuthmosis III at Deir el-Bahari

    doi:10.5277/arc150303

    The article is about Hathor capitals from the Hathor shrine in the temple Djeser-akhet of Tuthmosis III at Deir el-Bahari. Fragments of Hathor capitals were discovered by E. Naville and H.R. Hall during excavations at the temple of Mentuhotep II in the years 1903 to 1907 by the American expedition Egypt Exploration Fund. The correct interpretation of the found fragments of capitals was possible only after the discovery of the temple of Tuthmosis III by professor Kazimierz Michałowski in 1962 and after later excavations in 1962–1967 under the partial supervision of professor Jadwiga Lipińska. Scope of the present mission of Tuthmosis III, under the direction of Monika Dolińska, Ph.D., covers Egyptological and architectural studies with conservation work. Preserved fragments of Hathor capitals have never been inventoried, during work it was decided to create detailed documentation of the preserved fragments of Hathor capitals by using photoscaning technique. It allows creating virtual, three-dimensional copies of objects based on a series of photos. Thanks to that, a kind of virtual anastylosis was created. In the reconstruction findings of professor Lipińska about the proportion of the capitol were used. The developed reconstruction shows very probable proportions of Hathor capitals from the chapel. Results of created documentation confirmed some facts about the architecture of the shrine, which prof. Lipińska mentioned in her publications about the temple of Tuthmosis III. This article has illustrated some facts examplified by the prepared documentation.

    Keywords:
  •     hathor-capital
  •     new-kingdom-architecture-in-ancient-egypt
  •     deir-el-bahari
  •     tuthmosis-iii
  • Download article

    Małgorzata Chorowska, Teresa Dziedzic, Maciej Krzywka - Three Rich Stalls discovered in Wrocław

    doi:10.5277/arc150304

    The paper refers to the three former Rich Stalls, which were found in the building located at Przejście Żelaźnicze 4/6 St. In the Middle Ages the Rich Stalls were an important part of commercial buildings of the intermarket block. Iron products, non-ferrous metals, paints, chemicals, wax, dried fruits and spices were sold there. The Rich Stalls consisted of 48 chambers of trade, arranged in two rows. Between the northern and southern row of the chambers, the Rich Stalls Passage was left, now called Przejście Żelaźnicze. The chambers of trade were facing this passage. During the renovation of the building at Przejście Żelaźnicze 4/6 St., fragments of medieval walls were discovered, preserved mainly in the walls between the former stalls. They were made of hand-made bricks with original fi nger traces in the Gothic thread. On the basis of earlier architectural studies of the Rich Stalls, it is known that the chambers were two-storey buildings with basements. The ground fl oors were covered with ceilings and could reach a height of 4.5 to 4.6 m. Presently discovered architectural and equipment elements were: relics of the oven that was located in the back of the third stall, the entrance from the stall No. 3 to 4 and one more opening, resembling a window, although located inside the building. It had a sandstone sill located at a height of 60 cm and a sandstone framing from the side of the stall No. 3. This feature was located just at the facade of the building and its stonework was structurally interwined with the stone portal of the entrance from the street to the third stall.     The study shows that from the beginning the stall No. 3 was connected to the neighbouring chamber from the east side. Due to the simple form of lintels and their large sizes, their origin should be dated to the second half ot the 14th century. Comprehensive and detailed architectural studies were also essential for subsequent restoration works. The discovered relics, especially those of the stall No. 3, is the fi rst example of preserved and partially exposed ground fl oor of a chamber of trade in Wrocław.

    Keywords:
  •     stalls
  •     the-middle-ages
  •     the-city
  • Download article

    Mateusz Michalski - Architecture of Judaism on the examples of synagogues in the 17th- and the 18th-centuries in Poland

    doi:10.5277/arc150305

    The term “architecture of Judaism” is very diffi cult to defi ne, and in this form does not appear in the literature. Analyzing the context in which objects are created, and their designers, makes a kind of inexplicable phenomenon. Researchers are more of the opinion that Jews in the Diaspora did not develop any particular architectural form, they derived rather from existing patterns. At the same time these authors often use interchangeably the concept of culture and religion, making it even more diffi cult to defi ne the relevant terms.     The aim of this article is to understand better the meaning of “architecture of Judaism” and, looking through the prism of culture and religion and the symbolism ingrained in them, to demonstrate certain universal patterns that are part of the constitutive phenomenon of architecture rooted in religion.

    Keywords:
  •     judaism
  •     architecture
  •     synagogue
  •     poland
  • Download article

    Aleksandra Brzozowska - An archaeological park as an element of urban space exemplified by the Nea Paphos Archaeological Park in Cyprus

    doi:10.5277/arc150306

    The aim of the article is to show mutual connection between cities and accompanying them archaeological parks in the context of tasks that designers have while planning them. The park Nea Paphos on the south-west coast of Cyprus will serve as an example.     An archaeological park constitutes a separated space adapted to visiting, which bears witness to human activities in the past epochs. Monument preservation is the main aim of archaeological parks. It is desirable, as far as possible, to eliminate potential threats of archaeological relics (among others: over-exposure to the sunlight, wind, rain, humidity and potential damage from visitors). It is connected with creating an optimal sightseeing route that would take into account safety of the exhibited monuments, landscape qualities, existing infrastructure (platforms, exhibition pavilions, elements of small architecture). New elements introduced to already existing relics should supplement the programme of archaeological parks and create together with monuments a compact unity both functionally and aesthetically.     The second basic aim of archaeological parks is to draw people’s attention to history. Didactic objectives require the park to be provided with a proper infrastructure such as information plates or multimedia rooms, in which visitors could learn about the primary condition of an archaeological site. Scientific information should be presented in a way both interesting and easy to understand.     The next aspect of archaeological parks concerns ensuring the possibility of carrying work by specialists independently of opening them to the public. Due to continuing development of methodology of archaeological studies, also undamaging techniques, securing the possibility of future excavations becomes the priority.     An archaeological park converges many aspects of the past and present world and so it states high planning requirements for designers of this unusual area. Such a place may constitute a valuable element of the urban space, enriching cultural, scientific, didactic and touristic offer.

    Keywords:
  •     archaeological-park
  •     nea-paphos
  •     urban-space
  • Download article

    Marta Rusnak - Transformation of religious buildings into museums in Poland. History and scale of the phenomenon

    doi:10.5277/arc150307

    In Poland the desacralization of buildings for exhibition purposes may at first seem a marginal phenomenon. However, the fact that at least 84 such transformations have been carried out in Poland since World War II suggests something different. This paper aims at depicting the chronological development of this phenomenon, its scale and its architectural structure, i.e. the sort of buildings that have become adapted. It also tries to pinpoint the reasons why the pace of this process does not change even though nowadays both desacralization and search for new exhibition spaces are widely discussed topics. Yet another goal of this study was to find churches, synagogues and monasteries that could be used for further research, which in time may allow to form more detailed conclusions.

    Keywords:
  •     historical-monuments-transformation
  •     museum
  •     church
  •     desacralisation
  • Download article

    Ewa Łukaszewicz-Jędrzejewska - “Butterfly effect”

    doi:10.5277/arc150308

    This article is an attempt to present an episode from the private life of Karl Hanke, the Gauleiter of Lower Silesia in 1940–1945. His love affair with Magda Goebbels, wife of the Third Reich’s minister of propaganda, evidenced in source materials – the diaries of major participants in Nazi Germany’s political and cultural life – led to the end of his brilliant career in Berlin. The emotional involvement of both lovers was so strong that the issue of a possible divorce was to be decided by the Reich Chancellor, Adolf Hitler, himself. For political and moral reasons the Chancellor refused to give his consent and Karl Hanke was immediately dispatched to a place as distant from Berlin as possible. In January 1940, he arrived in Wrocław, to take up the offi ce of Gauleiter. In comparison to Berlin, for Hanke it meant a fall and a degradation. One of the most infl uential ministers and a protector, friend of such prominent artists as Albert Speer, Lída Baarová, Leni Riefenstahl or Gerdy Troost, and a confi dant to Joseph Goebbels, whom he eventually betrayed – had to fi nd his way in Wrocław’s wartime reality. In this article I propose a hypothesis that the defence of Festung Breslau was an act of Hanke’s personal revenge on the city for his exile from Berlin and showed symptoms of “a march of folly”.

    Keywords:
  •     karl-hanke
  •     magda-goebbels
  •     festung-breslau
  • Download article

    Barbara Misztal - The assessment of usability of various types of wood in construction

    doi:10.5277/arc150309

    The paper describes the dynamic testing of models made of pine, spruce, larch and oak wood. The testing was conducted in order to learn the properties of planks on the basis of data obtained from the testing of free elements’ vibration. Planks dried in air and after a 24 hours’ soaking in water were tested. The course of the vibration of each of the models was illustrated on a graph. The calculations of the determination of elements’ stiffness, and of the modulus of direct elasticity E for various wood species were shown. The aim of the testing was to determine how the modulus of elasticity varies due to wetting.

    Keywords:
  •     modulus-of-longitudinal-elasticity
  •     free-vibration
  •     damping-of-free-vibration
  • Download article